News

Medical Usage of Chloramphenicol

  • Author:Hubei Ocean Biotech Co,.LTd
  • Source:www.oceanchinachem.com
  • Release on :2016-04-19
The original indication of chloramphenicol was in the treatment of typhoid, but the now almost universal presence of multiple drug-resistant Salmonella typhi has meant it is seldom used for this indication except when the organism is known to be sensitive. Chloramphenicol may be used as a second-line agent in the treatment of tetracycline-resistant cholera.

Because of its excellent blood-brain barrier penetration (far superior to any of the cephalosporins), chloramphenicol remains the first-choice treatment for staphylococcal brain abscesses. It is also useful in the treatment of brain abscesses due to mixed organisms or when the causative organism is not known.

Chloramphenicol is active against the three main bacterial causes of meningitis: Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. In the West, chloramphenicol remains the drug of choice in the treatment of meningitis in patients with severe penicillin or cephalosporin allergy and general practitioners are recommended to carry intravenous chloramphenicol in their bag. In low-income countries, the WHO no longer recommends oily chloramphenicol as first-line to treat meningitis.

Broad-spectrum antibiotics, by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis and have antibacterial effect. For most gram-negative and positive bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria and the effect is stronger. Particularly for typhoid, paratyphoid bacillus strongest. Influenza, Bordetella pertussis, Shigella role also strong, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is also inhibited. The role of Gram-positive bacteria is less than penicillin and tetracycline, Rickettsia, Chlamydia trachomatis is also effective.
Due to serious side effects, chloramphenicol is generally not used for mild infections. Mainly used for typhoid, paratyphoid and other Salmonella infections. Combined with ampicillin for Haemophilus influenzae meningitis.

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